A hysterectomy is a surgery that is performed to remove the uterus as a whole. It is usually performed when all other types of treatment fail. Sometimes, the cervix, fallopian tubes, and ovaries would also have to be removed. A complete hysterectomy is one where the entire uterus is removed, including the body, fundus and cervix.
The patient has a choice regarding keeping the cervix if it is healthy. Doctors prefer laparoscopic procedures compared to open abdominal surgeries as it assures shorter recovery time and fewer complications.
The ovaries (oophorectomy), fallopian tubes (salpingectomy) along the uterus and cervix are often removed only if cancer has been detected.
This is a condition where the endometrium tissue that lines the inside of the uterus also grows on the outside which causes pelvic pain and irregular menstruation
Be it ovarian, uterine, cervical, or cancer of the fallopian tubes
This is a condition wherein the uterus lining becomes thick and the endometrial tissue grows into the deeper layers of the uterus
In this condition, the floor of the uterus loses its strength and causes the uterus to move into the vaginal tract
Benign tumours which can cause severe pain and excessive bleeding
Sex change surgeries due to gender dysphoria
A Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy (TLH) is a laparoscopic surgery performed to remove the womb and cervix. This is a procedure managed by the insertion of scopes, which are laparoscopes. These are tiny telescope instruments that are introduced into the abdomen through small incisions. The scopes have cameras, and the other scopes are manipulated into performing the surgery. This also allows the surgeon to explore the entire pelvis and abdomen for any other abnormalities which, if they do arise, can be treated surgically then and there.
This is a major surgery performed using laparoscopes which make incisions into the abdominal wall to reach the uterus. A small incision is first made near the umbilicus. The number of scopes inserted varies, depending on the severity of the condition. The abdomen is filled with carbon dioxide to create more visual space for the surgeon. The ligaments holding the uterus are slowly cut and blood vessels are ligated. The uterus is removed via the vagina by making an incision at the top part of the vagina. This incision is made with dissolvable stitches. All blood vessels in the area are cauterised to prevent any bleeding. If the uterus is too big, it is sometimes cut up into smaller portions and then removed by each part. All the incision sites are then closed up with stitches.
The procedure usually takes around two hours. Post the surgery, the patient will experience pain. The abdominal pain should subside hopefully. There is a correction in the bleeding that occurs.
Since this is a surgery that involves the removal of the uterus through the vagina, there are some prerequisites:
A hysterectomy can be a choice or a necessity. Proper medical care, counselling and treatment is important before proceeding with it. There are many complications. Thus, post-operative care and recovery are extremely important.